3 Beowulf

3 Beowulf

English 12A Unit I: Part Two “Focus on Literary Forms: The Epic” from Beowulf, translated by Burton Raffel Name_________________________________________________ Date____________________ Vocabulary Builder Word List (p. 38) loathsome massive purge reparation solace writhing A. DIRECTIONS: For each underlined word, substitute a word or phrase with the same meaning. Write it in the blank following the sentence. 1. Only a hero of Beowulf’s strength could hope to lift the massive sword in Grendel’s battle hall. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. The third monster, most loathsome of all, had eight eyes on stalks and was covered with lime. ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Most epic heroes strive to purge the world of wicked beings. ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Snakes can move rapidly with their writhing form of locomotion. ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. The badly defeated warrior found solace in the affection of his family. _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. The captured bandits were ordered to give gold to their victims as reparation. ______________________________________________________________________________ B. WORD STUDY: The root -sol- comes from the Latin solari, meaning “to comfort. ” Explain how the root -sol- influences the meaning of the underlined word in each sentence. (p. 66) 1. Before Beowulf arrived, Hrothgar and his Danes were disconsolate over the deeds of Grendel. ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. He consoled his little daughter for the loss of her goldfish by promising to buy her a new one. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. The Geats grieved inconsolably when the dragon killed their once mighty king, Beowulf. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.

Although she won the consolation tournament, Allison was disappointed in her performance. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Grade 12, Unit 1 1 Grammar and Style: Coordinating Conjunctions (p. 67) A coordinating conjunction links two of the same grammatical sentence parts. For example, a coordinating conjunction may link two subjects, two predicates, or two independent clauses. There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, yet, so, and for.

Look at these uses of coordinating conjunctions from Beowulf. Passage Conjunction and Use . . . The Almighty drove Those demons out, and their exile was bitter, . . . The coordinating conjunction and connects two independent clauses. . . . [T]heir ears could not hear His praise nor know His glory. . . . The coordinating conjunction nor connects two predicates. The coordinating conjunctions yet, so, and for also serve other functions in sentences. To identify them as coordinating conjunctions, make sure they are used to connect two of the same kinds of sentence parts.

Example Use Beowulf was brave, yet he was also smart. Yet is used as a coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses. I have not read Beowulf yet. Yet is used as an adverb to modify have read. Beowulf volunteers to fight Grendel, for he sees it as his destiny. For is used as a coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses. I bought a copy of Beowulf for two dollars. For is used as a preposition in the phrase for two dollars. A. PRACTICE: Underline each coordinating conjunction in these lines from Beowulf. Tell what sentence parts it connects. 1.

The high hall rang, its roof boards swayed,/And Danes shook with terror. ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. . . . [T]hey could hack at Grendel/From every side, trying to open / A path for his evil soul, but their points/Could not hurt him. . . . ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. . . . [T]he sharpest and hardest iron/Could not scratch at his skin, for that sin-stained demon / Had bewitched all men’s weapons. . . . ______________________________________________________________________________ B.

Writing Application: Write a sentence for each of the coordinating conjunctions for, so, and yet. Make sure you use each as a coordinating conjunction. 1. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________________ Grade 12, Unit 1 2 Burton Raffel Listening and Viewing Segment 1: Meet Burton Raffel • What does Burton Raffel attempt to do to a poem that he translates? ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ • When discussing translation, Raffel quotes Ezra Pound: “You don’t translate what a man says; you translate what a man means. ” Do you agree or disagree with Pound? Explain. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Segment 2: Burton Raffel on Beowulf • Why is Beowulf a culturally significant poem that we still read today? ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Segment 3: The Writing Process • What are the steps that Burton Raffel goes through while translating a text into English? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ • Why do you think it is important to follow such a rigorous method when translating? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Segment 4: The Rewards of Writing • According to Burton Raffel, why are translations important to society? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ • What do you think you could learn from translated literature? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Grade 12, Unit 1 3 Themes Across Centuries: Translator’s Insights Burton Raffel Introduces Beowulf

Contemporary Commentary (pp. 36-37) 1. What was the first part of Beowulf that Burton Raffel read? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. Based on Raffel’s introduction, what aspects of the poem do you think led to his life- long interest in Beowulf? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. According to Burton Raffel, who or what drives the plot of Beowulf? _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are two magical qualities that the hero Beowulf possesses? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. What are three ways that Beowulf’s name tells us that he is no mere human being? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. According to Raffel, how does the author of Beowulf create suspense at the start of the poem? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. Why does Grendel’s mother enter the narrative? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ . According to Raffel, how does the fire-breathing dragon contrast with a good king like Beowulf? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. What arguments does Raffel use to support his claim that Beowulf is “very much an Old Testament poem”? Do you find these arguments persuasive? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 10.

What might the religious dimension of Beowulf tell us about the culture that produced it? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Grade 12, Unit 1 4 Reading Strategy: Paraphrase to Determine Main Idea Long sentences and difficult language can make a piece of writing hard to follow. When you encounter such passages, it is important to determine the main ideas. In order to do so, you can paraphrase the passage, or restate the main ideas in your own words. Paraphrasing will help you make ure you understand the main point of the passage. Look at this example: Passage from Beowulf Paraphrased “I’ve never known fear, as a youth I fought I have been fearless throughout life In endless battles. I am old, now, and will continue to fight But I will fight again, seek fame still, if the hiding dragon dares to face me. If the dragon hiding in his tower dares To face me. ” Grade 12, Unit 1 5 Passage from Beowulf Difficult Words Key Ideas Paraphrase No one waited for reparation from his plundering claws: That shadow of death hunted in the darkness, . . . reparation (making up for rong or injury) plundering (taking by force, theft, or fraud) No one expected to be repaid for what Grendel took in his claws. Grendel was a shadow of death hunting in the darkness. No one expected to be repaid for what Grendel took. He hunted in the darkness. Critical Reading Questions from Beowulf, translated by Burton Raffel (pp. 38-65) 1. What annoys Grendel and leads to his attacks? ______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What universal conflict lies behind his war with the Danes? ____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why does Beowulf travel to Herot? _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What do his motive for taking the trip to Herot tell you about his character? _______________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.

How does the contrast between Grendel and Beowulf turn their conflict into a fight between good and evil? __________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Beowulf’s defeat of Grendel might be described as the defeat of the “dark side” of the warrior’s life. Explain. ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 7. Explain how the poem, by keeping Beowulf’s memory alive, keeps a culture’s values alive. __ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you think Beowulf’s deeds make him a good role model? Explain. ____________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ . What does Beowulf reveal about the way in which Anglo-Saxons defined evil and good? In responding, use at least two of these Essential Question words: liminal, boundary, malignant. ___ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Grade 12, Unit 1 6 Literary Analysis: The Epic/The Legendary Hero

The epic Beowulf is a long narrative poem that recounts the exploits of the legendary warrior Beowulf. Like other legendary heroes, Beowulf represents good and earns glory by struggling against the forces of evil represented by several monstrous creatures. He represents the values of his nation, culture, and religion. Beowulf is a typical epic poem in its serious tone and elevated language, which portrays characters, action, and setting in terms larger and grander than life. The use of kennings, two-word metaphorical names for familiar things, is also a particular characteristic of Anglo-Saxon poetry.

DIRECTIONS: Read each passage from Beowulf. Then list the characteristics of epic poetry and the legendary hero represented in it. 1. So mankind’s enemy continued his crimes, / Killing as often as he could, coming / Alone, bloodthirsty and horrible. Though he lived / In Herot, when the night hid him, he never / Dared to touch King Hrothgar’s glorious / Throne, protected by God—God, / Whose love Grendel could not know. . . . ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 2. “Hail, Hrothgar! / Higlac is my cousin and my king; the days / Of my youth have been filled with glory. Now Grendel’s / Name has echoed in our land: sailors / Have brought us stories of Herot, the best / Of all mead-halls, deserted and useless when the moon / Hangs in skies the sun had lit, / Light and life fleeing together. / My people have said, the wisest, most knowing / And best of them, that my duty was to go to the Danes’ / Great king.

They have seen my strength for themselves, / Have watched me rise from the darkness of war. . . .” ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. “Grant me, then, / Lord and protector of this noble place, / A single request! I have come so far, / O shelterer of warriors and your people’s loved friend, / That this one favor you hould not refuse me— / That I, alone and with the help of my men, / May purge all evil from this hall. ” ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Themes Across Centuries: Translator’s Insights Grade 12, Unit 1 7 Seamus Heaney Discusses Beowulf (pp. 68-69) 1. According to Heaney’s essay, was the original Old English scop a writer or a musician? ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. In what ways do you think details in this translation of Beowulf were influenced by the manner in which the tale was originally told? ___________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. On what voices does Heaney model his translation? ____________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Why might it have helped Heaney to have specific voices in mind as he translated? ___ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 5. Many translators have produced versions of Beowulf. In what ways might translators’ decisions affect your experience with the epic? _________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Contemporary Connection Grade 12, Unit 1 8 Beowulf: From Ancient Epic to Graphic Novel (pp. 76-80) 1. In this section from his graphic novel, Hinds depicts the lead-up to the battle with the dragon. Does the way in which Hinds portrays characters and scenes agree with how you pictured them? Why or why not? ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. In what visual ways does Hinds build suspense for the battle with the dragon? _______ _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. How do the words in the text boxes work with the images to create suspense? _______ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where does Hinds use close-ups, middle-distance views, and long-distance perspectives in telling the story? _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you think he effectively combines these different perspectives? Explain. ________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 6. How does storytelling with pictures and words differ from storytelling with words alone? __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? Explain. _____________ _______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you find it surprising that a very new form, the graphic novel, draws its subject matter from a very old form, an ancient epic? Why or why not? ____________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Enrichment: Film Portrayals of Monsters Grade 12, Unit 1 9 For thousands of years, evil monsters have played an important role in the world’s literature.

Today, monsters continue to thrive—until a hero comes along—on movie screens and television sets. You have probably enjoyed a number of frightening monster films and videos from the safety of your living room or local movie theater. You may even have your own favorite monsters —ones that were effectively presented and gave you a particularly “good scare. ” DIRECTIONS: Think about the creatures of doom and darkness that you have seen in films and videos. Include aliens from outer space and psychological human monsters, as well as the more “old-fashioned” sort. Make a chart like the one shown here. List your favorite monsters in the irst column. Then fill in the other columns with information about each monster. Use the information in your chart to help you consider how you would present Grendel in a film or video version of Beowulf. Write a description using scenes from the poem in which you present your ideas. You may also want to add sketches showing Grendel’s appearance, as well as viewpoints and camera angles. Movie Monster How shown? A clear image or a shadowy impression? From what point of view is it filmed? Hero’s? Victim’s? Monster’s? How is sound used to present the monster? Why is the monster frightening and effective? Grade 12, Unit 1 10