Antigone – Top Flashcard

Antigone – Top Flashcard

setting
thebes 13 century BC
Antigone
main character
ismene
sister of antigone
oedipus
killed married his mom had 4 kids
creon
iocaste brother, present king
Argive(argos)
helped polynieces attack thebes(not successful)
eteocles
loyal fighter
polyneices
traitor
What is creons edict? Why has he decided to make this proclamation?
Anyone who betrays the city will be killed and left to rot
What is the difference of opinion between Antigone and Ismene?
Antigone is brave and courageous and Ismene is weak and timid.
What is Antigones tone while talking to ismene?
sassy. she is glad that ismene isnt helping her
underlying the conflict between antigone and ismene are some larger issues or conflicts identify them.
man vs man gods law peoples law, creon vs antigone
“there it is; and now you can prove what you are: a true sister or a traitor to your family”
antigone to ismene she is letting ismene know that she has options
“for god hates utterly the bray of bragging tongues
the arogance/cockyness of polyneces . Greeks hated arogance
creon
king of thebes
guard
told creon the bad news
in his speech what quality does creon compliment the men of thebes for possessing
loyalty wants guards to be loyal to him and he is trying to butter them up.
What is creon explanation for his decision not to bury polynieces? What do you think of his explanation?
he doesnt talk about family he talks about relationships. He isnt going to let family get in the way of his work
“i have been wondering king can it be that the gods have done this?”
choragos to creon. law was against the gods creon says is intolerable creon is silencing opinions.
“are you sure that it is my voice and not your conscience?”
sentry to creon. creon is feeling guilty and stubborn/hubris
hubris
excessive arogance
haimon
creons son and antigones fiance
in the opening lines how does choragos react to antigones situation
in disbelief
summarize the story sentry tells creon about what has happened to polyneices corpse what is sentrys reaction to what has happened
undusted the body then the big dust storm came then antigone was crying then they saw her pour wine for a proper burial at noon antigone went along with the guards and didnt fight
after dismissing sentry creon seems to be trying to give sentry a way out of the situation. How does he do this and how does antigone respond? Why?
asks antigone to explain herself and he responds “it was public so i cant deny it”
antigone uses the words “fool” and folly” who is accused of folly? qhat do you think?
antigone. creon made her feel belittled. Antigone said creon is a fool. Creon thinks woman arent brave and he thinks men should have authority
what attitude does creon take toward antigone? give examples that illustrate his attitude
creons very disrespectful he says that he will get bored of antigone creon says “we should at leat lose to a man”
what does creon say about anarchy? would antigone agree with him why or why not?
anarchy: absense to a ruler. they cant show creon anything worse than anarchy antigone says going against the gods is wo
how does haimon respond to creon at the begginning of the scene? What value of the greeks does creon expect and haimon exhibit?
creon reminds haimon that respect his elders haimon says he respects creon because he is creons father and king
creon once again defends his ddecision to kill antigone outline his argument
creon doesnt want to give antigone any special treatment just because she is family he cant appear to be weak
how does haimon attempt to persuade creon that he is wrong? how does haimon tempermant compare to creons
haimon is much more reasonable and he thinks of woman as equals
how does creon repond to haimons attempts to change his mind? point out examples of hubris in his response to his son
creon was offended and said he was wrong because he is younger and creon is the king and is never wrong
tragic flaw
HUBRIS
both creon and haimon issue threats give examples
youll never marry her while she lives creon will kill antigone right infront of haimon he will put antigone in a vault of stone haimon will run away and never come back
in the begginning how does choragos feel?
very sad
what is antigones tone in scene 4
self pittying, helpless she knows the fights over she hoped poeple would feel sorry for her
what does chorus say is the reason antigone is facing death
you have made your choice your death is the doing of you own conscious hand
how does antigone attempt to elicit sympathy for her situation
shes directly asking/begging people to show her some love
what are the main points creon made at his device moment in the play? what can you infer about his internal conflict>
if she lives or dies its her problem his hands are clean she is trying to stall he is impatient
what is the subject of ode iv? what main idea is conveyed?
antigones lasts words are cursing creon
teiresias
told oedipus to investigate the prophecy “seer” of the future
the edge of fire
somethings right about to happen
hephaestus
god of fire
furies
goddesses of vengence who punished those who committed crimes againt their own families
eurydice
queen pf thebes, creons wife and she killed herself
walks on 4 legs in morn, 2 legs in afternoon, 3 legs in evening
man
Greek festival held in March, presented new tragedies and satires
Great Dionyssia
Greek god of theatre, wine, fertility
Dionysos
no one may mourn or bury Polyneices
Creon’s decree
blind oracle
Tieresias
sister of Antigone
Ismene
wife/mother of Oedipus
Jocasta
leader of choir, head adviser to Creon
Choragos
first king of Thebes in reference to this play
Laios
first suspect in burial of Polyneices
Sentry
follows divine law
Antigone
topic of Creon’s opening speech
loyalty
lost in the “roll of the dice”
Sentry
monster that terrorized Thebes with a riddle
Sphnix
engaged to Antigone
Haimon
father of Etecoles and Polyneices
Oedipus
author of this play
Sophocles
sacred animal of Dionysos
goat
moment tragic hero realizes he’s made a terrible mistake
anagnorisis
considered a traitor to Thebes
Polyneices
fulfilled a prophecy
Oedipus
considered a hero in Thebes
Etecoles
death or great suffering in a tragedy
catastrophe
how Haimon and Antigone are related
cousins
stabbed herself in her heart
Eurydice
tells Creon citizens disagree with his decision to kill Antigone
Haimon
serves as the “middleman” between father and son
Choragos
the gods will always punish this flaw
hubris
hanged herself
Antigone
current queen of Thebes
Eurydice
former queen of Thebes
Jocasta
tragic hero of this tragedy
Creon
told Creon of bad omens
Tieresias
only living offspring of Oedipus at play’s conclusion
Ismene
final step in a tragedy
order is restored
the paean honors him
Dionysos
stabbed himself
Haimon
what Eurydice puts on Creon
curse
tells all of the deaths at the cave
messenger
used by Antigone to kill herself
veil
belief in many gods
polytheism
reason Greeks didn’t show death on stage
uncivilized
convinces Creon to listen to oracle
Choragos
is able to give Polyneices a totally proper burial
Creon
whom Antigone blames for her predicament
Oedipus
whom the chorus blames for Antigone’s predicament
Antigone
whom Eurydice blames for both sons’ deaths
Creon
Creon’s only heir
Haimon
Antigone’s original death sentence
stoning
tried to stab Creon
Haimon
Antigone angered Creon with her ?
boasting
Antigone asks to be remembered with ?
love
man can control everything but ?
death
ode 2 compares Antigone to a ?
flower
Creon fears being humiliated by women or by ?
anarchists
tried to reason with Creon to try to get him to change his mind
Choragos
lesson Myth of Oedipus Rex should teach
never try to escape one’s fate
the play teaches that sometimes doing the right thing?
doesn’t always make a difference
the Greek gods hate
excessive pride
6 characteristics of a tragic hero
main character, high rank, noble character (within), tragic flaw(s), realize errors and try to make amends, great suffering/death
protagonist
The main or central character. Antigone is the _________ of the play. Another word to describe her is heroine (the term for a female hero).
antagonist
The character of force that opposes or blocks the main character (protagonist) in a narrative. Creon is the ___________ in the play.
chorus
A major element in Greek drama, this acts as the voice of humanity by commenting on the action and explaining the situations on stage.
parados
The opening song where the chorus sets up the major conflict in the play.
sated
satisfied and pleased
anarchists
those who disrespect laws or rules
sententiously
pointed; expressing much in few words
sultry
oppressively hot or moist; inflamed
transcends
goes above or beyond limits; exceeds
ode
A song performed by the chorus in between scenes (or episodes). These function as the closing of a curtain would in modern theater, and they often provide commentary on the events that surround them.
foil
A character who, through contrast, reveals the characteristics of another character. Ismene is the ______ of Antigone.
analogy
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An ________ can explain
something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. These can also
make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.
allusion
A reference in a work of literature to something outside the work, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work. There are numerous ________ to various Greek myths throughout the play.
motif
A recurring pattern of symbols, colors, events, allusions, or imagery. In literature, disturbances in nature often signify disorder in the state.
tragic hero
A privileged, exalted character of high repute, who, by virtue of a tragic flaw and fate, suffers a fall from glory into suffering.
tragic flaw
A moral weakness in character which inevitably leads to disaster and that character’s downfall.
Antigone
daughter of Oedipus, former King of Thebes, fiancee of Haimon, buries her brother Polyneices
Ismene
the daughter of Oedipus on the side of human law, the heroine’s sister
Creon
King of Thebes, uncle of Antigone and Ismene, father of Haimon and Megareus
A Sentry
brings word Polyneices has been buried; later he captures Antigone
Choragos
the leader of the chorus
“Creon buried our brother Eteocles
With military honors, gave him a soldier’s funeral,
And it was right that he should; but Polyneices,
Who fought as bravely and died as miserably, —
They say that Creon has sworn
No one shall bury him, no one mourn for him.
But his body must lie in the fields, a sweet treasure
For carrion birds to find as they search for food,
That is what they say…”
Antigone to Ismene – She is setting up the central conflict, and relaying news of Creon’s decree regarding their brother Polyneices. Creon has said that no one is to mourn for him or bury him. He is to be left in a field to rot and be fed on by animals. If anyone buries him they will be put to death.
“And now you can prove what you are:
A true sister, or a traitor to your family.”
Antigone to Ismene – This is Antigone’s challenge to her sister. Will you do what is right and stand by the family, or will you turn your back on us?
“Think how much more terrible than these
Our own death would be if we should go against
Creon
And do what he has forbidden! We are only women,
We cannot fight with men, Antigone!
The law is strong, we must give in to the law
In this thing, and in worse. I beg the Dead
To forgive me, but I am helpless: I must yield
To those in authority. And I think it is dangerous
business
To be always meddling.”
Ismene to Antigone – Ismene is afraid of dying; she believes women are not as strong as men; and she is afraid of authority. She is trying to tell her sister that there is no telling what Creon will do to them if they disobey. Ismene falls on the side of human law.
“But I will bury him: and if I must die,
I say that this crime is holy: I shall lie down
With him in death, and I shall be as dear
To him as he to me.
It is the dead,
Not the living, who make the longest demands;
We die forever….
You may do as you like,
Since apparently the laws of the gods mean nothing to you.”
Antigone to Ismene – She falls on the side of divine law. Her crime is holy because the gods want her brother to be buried. She is determined to do the right thing and does not fear the consequence.
“For God hates utterly
The bray of bragging tongues;
And when he beheld their smiling,
Their swagger of golden helms,
The frown of his thunder blasted
Their first man from our walls.”
Choragos (speaking to audience) – This explains that when God (Zeus) saw the bragging of Polyneices’s troops he turned against them and brought about their defeat. They displeased him and paid for it.
“Gentlemen: I have the honor to inform you that our Ship of State, which recent storms have threatened to destroy, has come safely to harbor at last, guided by the merciful wisdom of Heaven.”
Creon to Chorus – He is speaking about order being restored in Thebes after the battle between Polyneices and Eteocles. Note he alludes to the city being guided to this peace by the wisdom of the gods.
“I am aware, of course, that no Ruler can expect complete loyalty from his subjects until he has been tested in office. Nevertheless, I say to you at the very outset that I have nothing but contempt for the kind of Governor who is afraid, for whatever reason, to
follow the course that he knows is best for the State; and as for the man who sets private friendship above the public welfare, — I have no use for him either.”
Creon to Chorus – He is stating his thoughts about rulers and subjects. Rulers should do what is best for their region and people – REGARDLESS of personal relationships. Subjects should likewise follow the decrees and laws made by their rulers. He is the antagonist and he is on the side of human law.
“No one values friendship more highly than I; but we must remember that friends made at the risk of wrecking our Ship are not real friends at all.”
Creon to Chorus – Personal relationships must not interfere because they have a chance of damaging the State.
“Polyneices, I say, is to have no burial: no man
is to touch him or say the least prayer for him;
he shall lie on the plain, unburied; and the
birds and the scavenging dogs can do with him
whatever they like.”
Creon to Chorus – Stating his decree regarding Polyneices publicly. This is the central conflict of the play.
“As long as I am King, no traitor is going to be honored with the loyal man. But who-
ever shows by word and deed that he is on the
side of the State, — he shall have my respect while
he is living, and my reverence when he is dead.”
Creon to Chorus – Eteocles received a funeral and military honors because he was on the side of Thebes. Creon will respect him. Polyneices is not being given a burial because he went against Thebes. He is the traitor alluded to here.
“The body, just mounded over with light dust; you see?
Not buried really, but as if they’d covered it
Just enough for the ghost’s peace. And no sign
Of dogs or any wild animal that had been there.”
Sentry to Creon – He is reporting that someone buried Polyneices.
“I have been wondering, King: can it be that the gods have done this?”
Choragos to Creon and the Sentry – He is suggesting that Creon’s decree may have displeased the gods, and maybe they buried Polyneices. The gods are on Antigone’s side.
“The gods favor this corpse? Why? How had he served them…Is it your senile opinion that the gods love to honor bad men?”
Creon to Choragos – He is furious at Choragos’s idea that the gods would favor the traitor Polyneices. Creon views this as a ridiculous idea. This shows his arrogance. He thinks he knows better than the gods.
“I swear by God and by the throne of God,
The man who has done this thing shall pay for it!
Find that man, bring him here to me, or your death
Will be the least of your problems…”
Creon to the Sentry – He turns his anger on the messenger and orders him to find whoever buried Polyneices so he or she can be punished.
“I have seen a mother bird come back to a stripped nest, heard
Her crying bitterly a broken note or two
For the young ones stolen. Just so, when this girl
Found the bare corpse, and all her love’s work wasted,
She wept, and cried on heaven to damn the hands
That had done this thing…”
Sentry to Creon – He is describing the scene when Antigone was caught attempting to rebury her brother. He compares her to a mother bird whose babies have been taken from her in an effort to show she acted out of love.
“Your edict, King, was strong.
But all your strength is weakness itself against
The immortal unrecorded laws of God.
They are not merely now: they were, and shall be,
Operative forever, beyond man utterly.”
Antigone to Creon – His law is not more important than the laws of the gods. Those laws are eternal.
“The girl is guilty of a double insolence,
Breaking the given laws and boasting of it.
Who is the man here,
She or I, if this crime goes unpunished?
…she and her sister
Win bitter death for this!”
Creon to Choragos and Antigone – He accuses Antigone of breaking the law and boasting (bragging) about it. He also expresses that if he does not punish her – even though she is his niece — he will be perceived as a weak leader. Not only does he say she will be punished, he also plans to punish Ismene who did not help her.
“But now I know what you meant; and I am here
To join you, to take my share of punishment.”
Ismene to Antigone – She is begging Antigone to let her be punished too.