Beowulf: Plot Questions

Beowulf: Plot Questions

anathema
a curse
Shield Sheafson descriptors
scourge of many tribes, wrecker of mead-benches, terror of the hall-troops, one good king
Beow’s birth
son of Shield, sent by God to comfort the nation
Prince Beow
prince must give freely while his father lives
Shield Sheafson’s death
Shield was still thriving when his time came
great ring-giver
ruler
Shield Sheafson’s funeral ship
loaded with battle tackle, bladed weapons, and coats of mail
who salvaged Sheafson’s funeral ship
no man can tell
Beow’s heir
the great Halfdane
Halfdane’s childeren
4: Heorogar, Hrothgar, the good Halga, and a daughter
why Hrothgar built Heorot
fortunes of war favored Hrothgar, his mind turned to hall-building
Heorot
great mead-hall meant to be a wonder of the world forvever
descriptors of Grendel
powerful demon, a prowler through the dark, grim demon, dark death-shadow
motive for Grendel’s attack
“It harrowed him to hear the din of the loud banquet every day in the hall” The song of the skilled poet which told of man’s beginning and the making of the earth.
Grendel’s legend
he was banished to the marches because he is a descendent of Cain
result of the curse
ogres, elves, evil phantoms, and giants sprang from his exile
Grendel’s 1st attack
“grabbed 30 men from their resting places and rushed to his lair”
Hrothgar’s reaction
humiliated by the loss of his guard
time before Grendel’s next attack
one night later
length of Grendel’s attack
12 winters
Grendel wouldn’t stop
would never parley, stop his death-dealing, or pay the death-price
Grendel didn’t touch Hrothgar’s throne
he was kept from approaching by the Lord
Danes worship pagan shrines
stop Grendel’s attack; vowed offerings to idols to the killer of souls to come to their aid
God judges heathens
“Oh, cursed is he who in his time of trouble has to thrust his soul into fire’s embrace, forfeiting help; he has nowhere to turn”
God judges the virtues
“But blessed is he who after death can approach the Lord and find friendship in the Father’s embrace”
Hygelac’s thane, the mightiest man on earth
Beowulf
Beowulf’s plan
to sail the “swan’s road” and find Hrothgar
Beowulf’s company to defeat Grendel
14 other men
watchman’s job
guard the sea-cliffs
watchman questions Beowulf’s arrival
“What kind of men are you who arrive rigged out for combat in coats of mail, sailing here over the sea-lanes in your steep-hulled boat?”
hanger-on
person who spends time around someone to get something
word-hoard
mouth
Beowulf’s father
Ecgtheow
Beowulf’s description of Grendel
corpse-maker mongering death
grim war-graith
Beowulf’s men’s war gear
seafarers’ stook
stand of greyish tapering ash
Wulfgar tells Beowulf
“Stoutness of heart, bravery not banishment, must have brought you to Hrothgar.”
Wulfgar
a Wendel chief, herald and officer
Wulfgar will tell Hrothgar about Beowulf
“I will take this message, in accordance with your wish, to our noble king. our dear lord, friend of the Danes, the giver of rings. I will go and ask him about your coming here, then hurry back with whatever reply it pleases him to give.”
courtesies of addressing a lord
follower must stand four-square in front of his king
Wulfgar’s advise to Wrothgar
not to refuse Beowulf and to grant them a reply
Beowulf’s mother
she was given to Ecgtheow by her father, Hrethel the Geat
Beowulf’s strength
strength of 30 men in each hand
requirements for meeting with Wrothgar
shields and sears mustn’t be taken until an outcome is determined
Beowulf’s initial speech to Wrothgar
“Then news of Grendel, hard to ignore, reached me at home: sailors brought stories of the plight you suffer in this legendary hall, how I lies deserted, empty and useless once the evening light hides itself under heaven’s dome.”
Beowulf’s triumphs
bound 5 beasts, raided a troll-nest, in a night-sea slaughtered sea-brutes, and avenged the Geats
number of battles with Grendel
settle the outcome in single combat
Beowulf renounces sword and broad shield
Grendel scorns the use of weapons; they will fight hand-to-hand
outcome up to God
“Whichever one death fells must deem it a just judgment by God”
breast-webbing
a breast chain-mail piece; Beowulf’s fashioned by Weland
Beowulf to Hrothgar
“Fate goes ever as fate must.”
feud begun by Ecgtheow
Ecgtheow killed Heatholaf, a Wulfing; Ecgtheow was exiled
Heorogar
Wrothgar’s older brother died, leaving Wrothgar in charge
Hrothgar ended the feud
he paid by shipping a treasure-trove to the Wulfings; Ecgtheow pledged allegiance to Wrothgar
minstrel’s song before fight with Grendel
sang about the great rally of Geats and Danes
Unferth
a son of Ecglaf
length of Beowulf and Breca’s contest (Unferth’s version)
swam for 7 nights before Breca outswam Beowulf
Breca’s outcome (Unferth’s version)
outswam Beowulf and landed among the Heathoreams; Breca made good his boast upon Beowulf
length of Beowulf and Breca’s contest (Beowulf’s version)
swam for 5 nights until a storm separated them
Beowulf’s outcome (Beowulf’s version)
was attacked by ocean creatures and killed all of them saving sailors from deep-sea raids, landed on the coast of Finland
number of sea-monsters Beowulf killed
9 killed by Beowulf’s sword
Unferth’s eternal damnation
Unferth killed his own kith and kin
Wealhtheow
Hrothgar’s queen
Beowulf’s formal boast (Grendel)
“I had a fixed purpose when I put to sea. As I sat in the boat with my band of men, I meant to perform to the uttermost what your people wanted or perish in the attempt, in the fiend’s clutches. And I shall fulfil that purpose, prove myself with a proud deed or meet my death here in the mead-hall.”
Hrothgar takes leave of Beowulf before the fight with Grendel
Hrothgar wishes Beowulf health and good luck, then names him hall-warden
God sends Beowulf to defeat Grendel
“The King of Glory had posted a lookout”
Beowulf will fight Grendel without weapons
Despite Grendel’s wild strength, he doesn’t know the arts of war, how to use a shield, or a sword
sea-rover
sailor
lord plans Beowulf’s victory
“The Lord was weaving a victory on His war-loom for the Weather-Geats.”
God rules mankind
“The truth is clear: Almighty God rules over mankind and always has.”
shadow-bourne
literally – dark stream, figuratively – dark home
Grendel’s plan for the Heorot
“before morning he would rip life from limb and devour then, feed on their flesh
Bone-lappings
joint or tendon
Grendel kills a man in his sleep
he grabbed the man and mauled him on the bench, bit into his bone-lappings, drank his blood and gorged on his lumps
Beowulf’s attack
Beowulf armlocked Grendel and stopped him
Attack shook Heorot
because of the structure it survived the onslaught and kept standing
inside of Heorot after attack
mead-benches were smashed and ripped from the floor
soldiers want to kill Grendel
Beowulf doesn’t consider Grendel’s of worth to anyone
Beowulf’s warriors defend him
they attacked Grendel with their ancestral blades
Grendel cannot be hurt by sword
no blade on earth, no blacksmith’s art would damage Grendel. He protected himself by conjuring
Beowulf’s armlock on Grendel
sinews split and bone-lappings burt
sinews
tendon or ligament
Grendel escaped
driven under the fen-banks, fatally hurt
Beowulf’s trophy
Grendel’s entire shoulder and arm were entirely ripped off
Demons’ mere
bloodshot water wallowed and surged, there were loathsome upthrows and overturnings of waves and gore and wound-sully
Grendel’s death
since he was dying painfully he dived into the marsh-den, drowned out his life and his heathen soul
old retainers spread Beowulf’s victory
spread praise of Beowulf’s victory and said no one was better to rule a kingdom
Hrothgar’s minstrel’s
a thane of the king’s household, carrier of tales, traditional singer deeply schooled in the lore of the past
Sigemund’s exploits
feats and marvels of Waels’s son
Sigemund’s glory (minstrel’s song)
grew after his death because of his courage when he killed the dragon
King Heremod’s prowess declined (minstrel’s song)
Sigemund was known everywhere and his name flourished
King Heremond betrayed (minstrel’s song)
ambushed in Jutland and beaten down by grief
Hrothgar thanks God
`God allowed Beowulf to defeat Grendel and lifted his burdens from him
Hrothgar adopts Beowulf in his heart
“So now, Beowulf, I adopt you in my heart as a dear son.”
Hrothgar’s view of Beowulf
“But you have made yourself immortal by your glorious action. May the God of Ages continue to keep and requite you well.”
God allowed Grendel to get away
“Yet he bought his freedom at a high price, for he left his hand and arm and shoulder to show he had been here.”
repair Heorot
an order was given to refurbish Heorot immediately
Gifts presented to Beowulf by Hrothgar
a gold standard, an embroidered banner, breast-mail and helmet, a sword, 8 horses with gold bridles to be brought into the hall (the harness of one had a saddle where Hrothgar rode)
the Danish prince, decendant of Ing
gave the arms and horses to Beowulf
Hrothgar acted with customary grace
bestowing the gifts upon Beowulf and witness can see how well he behaved
rewards for Beowulf’s men
all who risked the voyage, received a bounty and treasured possessions
price for Geat killed by Grendel
compensation in the form of a price in gold
minstrel’s 2nd song
Hnaef, king of the Danes, died
Hildeburh (minstrel’s song2)
she lost her son and brother on the battlefield
truce between Hengest and Finn (minstrel’s song2)
there are few Frisian troops and Hengest had to take over after Hnaef’s death
terms of truce (minstrel’s song2)
1) separate quarters are to be cleared for the Danes and the hall and throne shared with the Frisians. 2) Finn must honour the Danes every date at the dole-out of gifts and match the bounty he gave his own Frisians
Finn’s oath to Hengest (minstrel’s song2)
the battle survivors would be guaranteed honour and status
bodies of slain are burned (minstrel’s song2)
all are burned together, Hnaef and Hildeburh’s son are also burned, woman wailed and sang keens
keen
Irish funeral song
Danes are stuck in Friesland (minstrel’s song2)
their greatness was lost and their warriors are scattered all over Friesland, Hengest was forced to stay with Finn the entire winter
Hengest wants revenge (minstrel’s song2)
Hunlaging gave Hengest “Dazzle-the-Duel,” the best sword of all
Finn’s death (minstrel’s song2)
Finn is killed in his home by Hengest
Danes renew the feud (minstrel’s song2)
Danes kill the warriors, loot the stronghold, and kidnap Hildeburh, Finn’s widow
Hrethric and Hrothmund
Wealhtheow’s sons
gifts presented to Beowulf at the feast after Grendel’s death
2 arm bangles, a mail-shirt, and rings
Hygelac the Geat does with this neck-ring
snatched by Hama, Brosings’ neck-chain
Hygelac’s death
killed by Frankish hands because he provoked a fued with the Frisians
Wealhtheow pronounces to the company
“Take delight in thes torque, dear Beowulf, wear it for luck and wear also this mail from our people’s armoury: may you prosper in them!”
men prepare for bed in Heorot
benches are pushed back as bedding is spread on the floor, one man is marked for death as he lays to rest
Grendel’s mother
monstrous hell-bride seeks revenge for Grendel’s death
Grendel’s mother is forced to live in the cold depths
after Cain killed his brother with a sword
Beowulf’s victory depends on the favour of God
Beowulf relied on help on the Lord of All
Grendel’s mother’s attack
“Her onslaught was less only by as much as an amazon warrior’s strength is less than an armed man’s”
the men of the Heorot react to Grendel’s mother’s attack
grabbed swords and broad shields, but forget helmets or woven mail
Grendel’s mother panics
she’s desperate to escape and took one of the retainers and headed for the fen
the man taken by Grendel’s mother
the most beloved of Hrothgar’s friends, Aeschere
Beowulf not present for Grendel’s mother’s attack
after the award of the treasure, he had been given another lodging
Grendel’s mother takes back Grendel’s arm
uproar in Heorot after Grendel’s mother snatches their trophy
Aeschere
Hrothgar’s highest-placed adviser and dearest companion, Yrmenlaf’s older brother, killed by Grendel’s mother
reason for Grendel’s mother’s attack
she took up a feud after Beowulf killed Grendel
belief’s of the country people about Grendel and his mother
bigger than any man, fatherless creatures whose ancestry is hidden in a past of demons and ghosts, they live on windswept crags and treacherous keshes
crags and keshes
rock face and barbed plant stems
mere at night
water burns and the bottom has never been seen by the sons of men
heather-stepper
deer
Beowulf’s ideas on grief
“It is always better to avenge dear ones than to indulge in mourning.”
Aeschere’s head
found at the foot of the cliff by the company
water where Grendel’s mother lived
bloodshot water infested with all kinds of reptiles: writhering sea-dragons and monsters on the slopes by the cliff, serpents that attack ships
one of the beasts is killed
the Geat chief shot one with an arrow and he rose to the surface, he was taken in and pulled onto the bank so the men could see him
bone-cage
rib cage
Beowulf’s fine-webbed mail
strong enough so that no enemy could crush him and no armlock could choke him
item lent by Unferth
“a rare and ancient sword named Hrunting”
Hrunting
never failed anyone who held it in battle
Beowulf’s words to Hrothgar before he attacks Grendel’s mother
if he dies, he asks Hrothgar to act like a father to him afterwards and ensure that Hygelac gets the treasures he was given. Unferth is also to have everything Beowulf inherited including “his own sharp-horned, wave-sheened wonderblade”
time until Beowulf reached the bottom of the lake
the best part of a day before he could see solid bottom
Grendel’s mother attacks underwater
she lunged and caught Beowulf but couldn’t crush him
Grendel’s mother takes him to her court
he isn’t able to use the weapons he carries and is attacked by sea-beasts
the water doesn’t hinder Beowulf
the hall-roofing holds off the force of the current
Hrunting fails Beowulf
his swords failed because it couldn’t cut Grendel’s mother and spared her. he must fight with his hands
Beowulf stumbles
he is daunted by Grendel’s mother and falls. Grendel’s mother takes advantage and stabs Beowulf, who survives because of his chain-mail
God again decides victory
Allows Beowulf survive Grendel’s mother
Beowulf discovers and ancient sword
a sword from the giants so huge only Beowulf could wield it
Grendel’s mother’s death
the giant’s sword cut into her neck and severed her spine
Beowulf was determined to take revenge for Grendel’s acts
when he slaughtered and ate 15 of Hrothgar’s sleeping house-guards
Beowulf’s revenge
cut off Grendel’s head after his death
the councilors keeping lookout
saw the blood from Beowulf cutting off Grendel’s head and thought Beowulf had died
When the Shieldings leave the cliff-top
the 9th hour of the day, the strangers hold out and wished to see their lord Beowulf
the giant’s sword melts
scalded by the blood of Grendel’s mother
Beowulf returns from the battle with Grendel’s mother
he carries only Grendel’s head and the hilt of the giant’s sword
the waters around Grendel’s mother’s lair are safe
after she died the waters are no longer infested
men needed to carry Grendel’s head
4 men to lift it on a spear
Grendel’s head delivered to Hrothgar
dragged by his hair across the floor at Heorot
Beowulf’s account of the battle with Grendel’s mother
“I barely survived the battle under water. It was hard-fought, a desperate affair that could have gone badly; if God had not helped me.”
Beowulf describes the giant’s sword to Hrothgar
it was a damascened weapon made for giants
Beowulf’s pledge to Hrothgar after the fight with Grendel’s mother
“you can sleep secure with your company of troops in Heorot Hall. Never need you fear for a single thane of your sept or nation, young warriors or old, that laying waste of life that you and your people endured of yore.”
Beowulf gives Hrothgar the hilt of the giant’s sword
Beowulf presents him the hilt, it was passed on to the prince of the Danes and after the death of Grendel’s mother was given to Hrothgar
inscriptions on the sword hilt
showed how war 1st came to the world and the flood destroying the tribe of giants
Hrothgar addresses Beowulf after the fight with Grendel’s mother
“So I stand firm by the promise of friendship we exchanged before. Forever you will be your people’s mainstay and your own warriors’ helping hand.”
King Heremod’s rule
his rule brought death and destruction to the Danish people
pariah king
an outcast king
King Heremod goes against the gifts of God
God had made Heremod powerful but he grew bloodthirsty and didn’t honor the Danes so he suffered
God favors people and it can lead to their undoing
God allows them to lead many lands and they begin to think that they are eternal
The man who indulges his desires begins to treasure possessions
he covets and resents; dishonors custom and bestows no gold
Hrothgar warns Beowulf about pride
“O flower of warriors, beware of that trap. Choose, dear Beowulf, the better part, eternal rewards. Do not give way to pride.” Beowulf is strong now, but eventually it will fade
Hrothgar’s experience proves that the blessings of God can disappear
“I came to believe my enemies had faded from the face of the earth. Still, what happened was a hard reversal from bliss to grief. Grendel struck after lying in wait.”
Beowulf is given lodging for the night before he leaves
a house-guard showed him out, his job was to show any traveler what they need. it was a noble courtesy
black raven announcing sunrise
guests slept until “the black raven with raucous glee announced heaven’s joy”
Beowulf returns Hrunting to Unferth
Beowulf thanks Unferth for lending him Hrunting and doesn’t blame the sword for failing. this makes Beowulf a considerate man
Beowulf pledges his allegiance to Hrothgar
“If there is any favour on earth I can perform beyond deeds of arms I have done already, anything that would merit your affections more, I shall act, my lord, with alacrity.”
Beowulf tells Hrothgar that Hygelac will support him
Hygelac is yourng for a king but will come to Beowulf’s aid and support him with word and action
Hrothgar says goodbye to Beowulf
Hrothgar kisses Beowulf and embraces his neck before braking down into tears
Hrothgar has two forebodings
1) he will never see Beowulf again 2)not named
Hrothgar’s generosity
he was praised repeatedly and was peerless until death
coast-guard says goodbye to Beowulf
he galloped to meet them as they got to their ship and said they would be welcome in Geatland
present given to guard who watched their boat
a sword with gold fittings that would make him a respected man
sea-shawl
sail
harbor guard at Denmark
he had been watching the shore for Beowulf’s company
Hygd
Hygelac’s wife
Hygd’s behavior
she’s smart and has good manners, Haereth’s daughter was generous
Great Queen Modthryth
she did terrible things until she was married to Offa
example of Queen Modthryth’s actions
if a retainer ever looked her in the eye: “he was kept bound in hand-tightened shackles, racked, tortured until doom was pronounced – death by sword.”
King Offa
he was honoured far and wide for his generosity
Eomer
King Offa’s son, Garmund’s grandson, kinsman of Hemming
Ongentheow’s killer
King Eofer
manners of Haereth’s daughter
she moved about with a mead-jug in her hand and took care of Beowulf’s company
Freawaru
Hrothgar’s daughter, bride-to-be to Ingeld
Beowulf’s prediction of the result of Ingeld and Freawaru’s wedding
he believes the wedding won’t end the feud. “But generally the spear is prompt to retaliate when a prince is killed, no matter how admirable the bride may be.”
Beowulf explains why the feud would be renewed
“Then an old spearman will speak while they are drinking, having glimpsed some heirloom that brings alive memories of the massacre”
how the “old spearman” will stir up trouble
“Now, my friend, don’t you recognize your father’s sword.” this will cause a fight between the men and eventually they will get in a fight where one will die
Ingeld will begin to hate his wife because of the feud
“a passionate hate will build up in Ingeld and love for his bride will falter in him as the feud rankles.”
Handscio
the man of Beowulf’s company that was killed by Grendel, his entire body was eaten
description of Grendel’s bag
“roomy pouch, a strange accoutrement, intricately strung and hung at the ready, a rare patchwork of devilishly fitted dragon-skins.”
Beowulf tells Hygelac about his rewards
he got lavish rewards from Hrothgar, including beaten gold
Beowulf tells Hygelac about the feast after he kills Grendel
a man would play the harp, tell a story about tragedy, Hrothgar would tell a fantastic tale, or a war veteran would tell stories about wars
Beowulf tells Hygelac about Grendel’s mother’s motives
she was a vehement mother who wanted to avenge her son
Beowulf tells Hygelac about Aeschere
Aeschere was Hrothgar’s elder wise in counsel and was killed by Grendel’s mother, his death was hard on Hrothgar
Beowulf tells Hygelac about Hrothgar’s generosity
Hrothgar acted with due custom. Beowulf was paid and given the freedom to choose from Hrothgar’s treasures
Gifts Beowulf gives to Hygelac
battle-topping helmet, mail-shirt grey as hoar-frost, and the precious war-sword. 4 horses with the armour
speech Beowulf gives to Hygelac about the sword
“[Hrothgar] said it had belonged to his older brother, King Heorogar, who had long kept it, but that Heorogar had never bequeathed it to his son Heoroweard, that worth scion, loyal as he was. Enjoy it well.”
Hygelac and Beowulf’s relation
Hygelac was Beowulf’s uncle
Beowulf presented Hygd with a gorget
the torque that the prince’s daughter, Wealhtheow, had given him, and 3 horses
examples of Beowulf’s valour
he didn’t take advantage, never killed a comrade who was drunk, kept his temper, and controlled the strength God sent him
how the Geats felt about Beowulf before he left
they firmly believed the prince was a weakling
gifts Hygelac gave to Beowulf
Hygelac ordered a gold-chase, gem-studded sword that belonged to Hrethel brought out and laid it on Beowulf’s lap. land with 7,000 hides, a hall, and a throne
Hygelac dies
he died in battle after Heardred’s shield failed against battle with the Shylfings
Beowulf becomes king
Hygelac’s kingdom reverted to Beowulf
length of Beowulf’s reign until the dragon
50 winters
description of the dragons lair
steep vault with a stone-roofed barrow and hidden passages
theft of the gem-studded goblet
someone managed to get in the dragon’s lair and steal the goblet and outwitted the sleeping dragon
thief’s motive
he was a desperate slave who was fleeing from an abusive master. he stumbled upon the cave and in a panic ran away with the metalwork
who put the treasure in the lair – the keeper of the hoard
a person now forgotten buried the riches of a high-born race in the ancient cache
Words spoken by the keeper of hoard
“Now, earth, hold what earls once held and heroes can hold no more; it was mined from you first by honourable men… I am left with no body to bear a sword or burnish plated goblets, put a sheen on the cup… Pillage and slaughter have emptied the earth of entire peoples.”
The dragon
Old harrower of the dark, vile sky winger
Motives of the dragon
He’s driven to hunt out hoards and guard heathen gold through age-long vigils
Amount of time dragon stood guard
3 centuries
Thief begs his lord to be reinstated
Took the gold-plated cup and made his plea
Ring-hoard
God allowed the thief to escape
The thief wasn’t marked by fate and escaped easily
dragon looks for the their
he kept circling outside the mound
dragon wants revenge for the theft
the dragon waits impatiently and his fury at the theft makes him want to lash out in flames
the first to suffer from the dragon
the people on the land
dragon’s attacks
the Geat nation bore the brutal assaults and virulent hate, the dragon would return to the hoard before daybreak
Beowulf’s home is burned
his home, the best of buildings had been burnt to a cinder
Beowulf believes he has upset God
“the wise man thought he must have thwarted ancient ordinance of the eternal Lord, broken His commandment.”
Beowulf prepares for battle with the dragon
orders an all-iron shield, his linden boards would burn
the death of Beowulf and the dragon are stated
“After many trials, he was destined to face the end of his days in this mortal world, as was the dragon, for all his long leasehold on the treasure.”
Beowulf’s pride
won’t line up with a large army and didn’t regard the dragon as a threat
cruelest hand-to-hand combat Beowulf fought
when King Hygelac died
Beowulf survives the battle
his amazing swimming abilities allow him to swim to safety
what Beowulf carries in his escape
30 battle-dresses
Hetware isn’t happy
Beowulf fighting against them means most wouldn’t return home
Hygd offers Beowulf the throne
Hygd doesn’t believe in her son’s ability to lead now that Hygelac is dead
Beowulf refuses the throne
Beowulf instead supports the prince(Heardred)
sons of Ohthere, exiles
arrive in Geatland, they had rebelled against the kinds in Sweden
Heardred’s death
his hospitality to the exiles leads to his death, they stab him with a sword
Onela returns to Sweden
Beowulf is left to become king
Beowulf plans to avenge Heardred’s death
Beowulf befriends the Eadgils and they help him kill Onela, ending the feud
number of men Beowulf takes to fight the dragon
11 comrades
the thief joins the company
the precious cup is provided by the finder, he brings the company’s number to 13
location of the dragon’s cave
it is near the sea-billows and waves and heaped with exquisite metalwork
Beowulf senses his death
Beowulf is saddened by this premonition, “before long the prince’s spirit would spin free from his body”
Beowulf tells of his childhood
at 7 he is fostered out by his father and left in charge of his people’s lord
Beowulf tells of King Hrethel’s treatment
King Hrethel took care of Beowulf and treated him the same as his own childeren
Herebeald and Haethcyn
King Hrethel’s childeren
Herebeald’s death (firstborn)
Herebeald is killed by his brother, Heathcyn shot an arrow wide and killed Herebeald accidently
Herebeald’s death causes misery
Herebeald’s death cannot be avenged and his death-price can’t be paid
the pain of Herebeald’s death is like…
the misery felt by an old man who watches his son’s body swing from the gallows, and the man’s wisdom is worthless
Hrethel sings a lament for Herebeald
Hrethel lies on his bed to sing, filled with longing
Hrethel’s death
the pain of being unable to avenge Herebeald’s death is too much so “he chose God’s light and departed.”
Hostilities brake out after Hrthel’s desth
Ongentheow’s sons refuse to make peace and ambush around Hreasnahill
Heathcyn’s death
Heathcyn dies in battle against the Swedes
Eofor kills Ongentheow
Hygelac raised his sword against Ongentheow, but Eofor killed him
treasures given to Beowulf by Hygelac
land and the security of the land
Hygelac doesn’t need mercenaries
no need to call mercenaries from the Gifthas, Spear-Danes, or Swedes
Beowulf will march in front of Hygelac
“as long as this sword shall last”
Beowulf kills Davraven the Frank
he killed Davraven in front of 2 armies with his bare hands
Beowulf’s last formal boast
“I risked my life often when I was young. Now I am old but as king of the people I shall pursue this fight for the glory of winning, if the evil one will only abandon his earth-fort and face me in the open.”
Beowulf doesn’t want to use weapons
“I would rather not use a weapon if I knew another way to grapple with the dragon and make good on my boast”
Beowulf must use weapons
since the dragon spits “molten venom” Beowulf must go fight in a mail shirt and shield
God again decides battle
“between the two of us will turn out as fate, overseer of men, decides.”
Beowulf asks his men to stay behind
he asks them to remain of the barrow safe in their armour
Beowulf’s last words to his men
“I shall win the gold by my courage, or else mortal combat, doom of battle, will bear your lord away.”
landmarks near the hoard
a stone arch and gushing stream
the dragon come out
the dragon heard Beowulf’s voice and attacks
weapons carried by Beowulf
a shield and keen-edged sword he inherited by ancient right
Beowulf and the dragon equally scary
“each antagonist struck terror in the other.”
Beowulf’s shield fails
his shield lasted less time than he anticipates
fate denies Beowulf
only in his fight with the dragon does fate deny Beowulf
Beowulf hits the dragon
the blow against the dragon’s enameled scales scarcely cut and was far less powerful than needed
Beowulf’s infallible sword fails
when Beowulf unsheathed his sword it fails, even though it shouldn’t
Beowulf gives ground
Beowulf is forced to give ground during the fight and that is compared to him having to surrender to death
Beowulf’s troop breaks ranks
they run for their lives and don’t help Beowulf
one of Beowulf’s soldiers doesn’t flee
Wiglaf, son of Weohstan
Wiglaf, son of Weohstan
a well-regarded Shylfing warrior, related to Aelfhere
Wiglaf remembers his good life
he remembers the beautiful gifts given to him, his good life among the Waegmundings and can’t run away
Wiglaf’s weapons
a yellow-timbered shield and a sword
Wiglaf’s sword’s history
ancient blade that belonged to Eanmund, son of Ohthere, the one slain by Weohstan
Onela returned Weostan’s weapons
returned his weapons and rewarded him with Eanmund’s war-gear ignoring the blood-feud
Weohstan gives his war-gear to his son
at the end of his life he bequeathed innumerable weapons to Wiglaf
Wiglaf’s spirit
his spirit is strong and his ancestral blade doesn’t break
Wiglaf’s wise words to his companions
“I remember that time when mead was flowing, how we pledged loyalty to our lord in the hall, promised our ring-giver we would be worth our prices”
Beowulf hand picked his company
Wiglaf tells of how Beowulf hand picked his army because he considered them the best
Wiglaf begs the other men to assist Beowulf
“now the day has come when this lord we serve needs sound men to give him their support. Let us go to him, help our leader through the hot flame and dread of the fire.”
Wiglaf believes he must help Beowulf
“I well know the things he has done for us deserve better. Should he alone be left exposed to fall in battle? We must bond together shield and helmet, mail shirt and sword.”
Wiglaf’s inspiring words to Beowulf
“Go on, dear Beowulf, do everything you said you would when you were still young and vowed you would never let your name and fame be dimmed while you lived. Your deeds are famous, so stay resolute, my lord, defend your life now with the whole of your strength. I shall stand by you.”
Wiglaf’s armour is useless
Beowulf and Wiglaf share a wide rimmed shield
Naegling snaps
Beowulf connects with the dragons skull only to have his sword snap
Beowulf isn’t good with swords
no matter how strong the sword is always let him down because he was too strong
dragon’s 3rd attack
the dragon bites Beowulf’s neck
Wiglaf injures the dragon
Wiglaf’s hand is burned, he lunges at the dragon and stabs him in the belly weakening his flames
Beowulf kills the dragon
Beowulf stabbed the dragon with a knife on his belt in the dragon’s flank
Beowulf’s last labour and triumph
killing the dragon
the dragon’s bite was poisonous
Beowulf’s wound begins to scald and swell and he feels surges of nausea
Beowulf struggles to sit on the rampart
Beowulf realizes he is in a bad state because of the wound
Wiglaf washes Beowulf’s wounds
Wiglaf was unequaled in goodness and so washed Beowulf’s wounds, bathed him clean, and unbuckled his helmet
Beowulf never had an heir
“Now is the time when I would have wanted to bestow this armour on my own son, had it been my fortune to have fathered an heir and live on in his flesh.”
length of Beowulf’s rule
50 years
Beowulf’s goodness meant God allowed him a good rule
Beowulf never swore to a lie and never murdered his kinsmen
Beowulf asks Wiglaf to bring out some of the dragon’s treasure
“I want to examine that ancient gold, gaze my fill on those garnered jewels; my going will be easier”
what Wiglaf sees in the dragon’s barrow
a treasure-trove of astonishing richness, glittering gold across the ground, packed with tarnishing and corroding goblets and vessels, rusty helmets, and armbands everywhere
Wiglaf sees a standard
made entirely of gold, a masterpiece of filigree that glowed with light
items Wiglaf takes to Beowulf
flagons, plates, and the standard
Wiglaf rushes back to Beowulf
he hoped he would find Beowulf alive when he went back
Wiglaf cleans Beowulf again
Beowulf was bleeding a lot and was dying so he washed him again
Beowulf’s words at seeing the gold
“To the everlasting Lord of All, to the King of Glory, I give thanks that I behold this treasure here in front of me”
Beowulf’s Barrow
Beowulf orders his troops to construct a barrow, after his pyre cooled, looming on the horizon at Hronesness
Beowulf gives Wiglaf some of his things
a gold collar, the warshirt, and the gilded helmet
Beowulf’s last words
“You are the last of us, the only one left of the Waegmundings. Fate swept us away, sent my whole brave high-born clan to their final doom. Now I must follow them.”
Beowulf dies
Beowulf’s soul fled from his breast to its place among the steadfast ones
the dragon is dead
he was killed by blades, and would never again glitter and glide in the midnight air
the treasure has been won
the treasure was bought and paid for by Beowulf’s death
Beowulf’s soldiers return
the 10 battle-dodgers come back from the woods, ashamed
Wiglaf tries to revive Beowulf
Wiglaf sat shoulder to shoulder with Beowulf trying, in vain, to bring him round with water
Wiglaf insults Beowulf’s soldiers
gifting the soldiers weapons “was throwing weapons uselessly away,” because they were cowards
Wiglaf rebukes Beowulf’s soldiers
“Beowulf had little cause to brag about his armed guard; yet God who ordains who wins or loses allowed him to strike with his own blade when bravery was needed.”
Wiglaf tells of his helping Beowulf
“Then my sword connected and the deadly assaults of our foe grew weaker, the fire coursed less strongly from his head. But when the worst happened too few rallied around the prince.”
Wiglaf will ensure the cowards possessions are taken
their freeholds of land will be taken because “A warrior will sooner die than live a life of shame.”
retainers await news of Beowulf
they waited all morning to hear if Beowulf survived or not
A messenger tells of Beowulf’s death
“Now the people’s pride and love, the lord of the Geats, is laid on his deathbed, brought down by the dragon’s attack. Beside him lies the bane of his life, dead from knife-wounds.”
Wiglaf keeps vigil over Beowulf
the living watches over the dead holding a wake for the loved and loathed
Hostility among the Franks
since Hygelac sailed forth in charge of a war-fleet into Friesland
Hetware attacks the Franks
he overwhelmed them with his numbers, the Merovingian king is now an enemy of Geatland
No peace with the Swedes
since Ongentheow killed Haethcyn at Ravenswood
Why Ongentheow killed Haethcyn
the Gear people attacked the Shylfings in arrogance
Ohthere’s father attacks in return
he killed the sea-king and saved his wife, mother of Onela and Ohthere
Ongentheow threatens the Geat army
he “promised to ace their bodies open when dawn broke, dangle them from gallows to feed the birds.”
Hygelac comes to save his army
the sound of Hygelac’s horn called as he came to find them with reinforcements
Ongentheow withdraws
goes to higher ground, he had no confidence that he could hold out against the Geats and defend his wife and loved ones
Ongentheow is cornered
Ongentheow’s fate is in Eofor’s hands
Wulf, son of Wonred attacks Ongentheow
struck at him in anger and split open his head, but Ongentheow survived and strikes back harder
Ongentheow breakes Wulf’s helmet
Ongentheow buckled and bowed Wulf’s bloodied head, but Wulf recovered despite his injuries
Eofor killed Ongentheow
Hygelac’s thane, Eofor, lifted his sword and smashed Ongentheow’s helmet, Ongentheow collapsed
King Hygelac is given Ongentheow’s things
a warrior looted Ongentheow’s iron mail-coat, hard sword-hilt, and helmet and gave them to King Hygelac
Eofor and Wulf are rewarded by Hygelac
given gifts of land and linked rings, Eofor is given Hygelac’s only daughter
the feud between the Swedes and the Geats
bound to revive after Beowulf’s death
Beowulf defended the Geats
he kept their coffers and kingdom safe
They must hurry to launch Beowulf
because of the feud they must take one last look at Beowulf
plan for Beowulf’s funeral pyre
melt a lot of gold and heap it in a hoard
the rings of the hoard will be burned
no follower will wear them in his memory nor lovely woman link and attach them around her neck
the Geats will be sad
they walk bereft and bowed under woe
mourning Beowulf
dawn-cold spears will be waved high and no harps will play
raven carries news to the eagle
“how the wolf and he made short work of the dead.”
the messenger’s message
he got little wrong in his predictions
the Geats go to look at Beowulf
he is found on the sand where he died
Beowulf’s death
a marvelous death
the fire-dragon’s body
laying facing Beowulf was scaresomely burnt
length of the dragon
50 feet
treasures next to the dragon
pitchers, piled-up dishes, silent flagons, rusted precious swords
length of time the treasure was underground
1,000 winters
gold under a spell
no one was permitted to enter unless God allowed them to open the hoard
dragon kills Beowulf
the dragon killed the men among men
Beowulf didn’t know how he would die
when he faced the dragons he didn’t know how he would be killed
those who buried the treasure cursed it
“whoever robbed it would be guilty of wrong and grimly punished for their transgression”
Beowulf isn’t selfish
Beowulf isn’t wrong because his gaze at the gold treasure isn’t selfish
the hoard is paid for
it was paid by a grave cost, Beowulf’s death, too cruel a fate that forced him there
Beowulf’s condition while making requests
still himself, alive, and aware
Beowulf’s last wishes
order the building of a barrow that would serve as his memorial
bier
a movable frame on which a coffin or a corpse is placed before burial or cremation or on which it is carried to the grave
people sent to fetch wood for the pyre
many people of importance are sent far and wide
steel-hail
an arrow storm
group of people to retrieve treasure
8 men including Weglaf, 1 holding a torch
dispose of the dragon’s body
over the clifftop
treasure loaded onto cart
coiled gold in great abundance
Beowulf’s funeral pyre
four-square, hung with helmets, heavy war-shields, and shining armour
Beowulf’s funeral fire
the hugest of all funeral fires
a Geat woman’s grief
she unburdened herself of her worst fears with a wild litany
Geat woman’s fears
her nation being invaded, enemies on the rampage, bodies in piles, slavery and abasement
a mound on a headland
it was completed in 10 days, hero’s memorial, and what remained from the fire was placed inside
things buried in the barrow
torques, jewels, and a trove of such things
warriors ride around Beowulf’s tomb
12 chieftain’s sons, champions in battle, chanting in dirges
content of the chants
extolled his heroic nature and gave thanks for his greatness
the proper thing for a funeral
a man should praise a prince whom he holds dear and cherish his memory when that moment comes
Beowulf’s character
“They said that of all the kings upon the earth he was the man most gracious and fair-minded, kindest to his people and keenest to win fame.”