?Tanin Pattaphongse English 113B Professor Mandy Macklin. March 2014 Normality in our Society We all are born into this world unique; we live differently, because we experience different things in our life. The environment and space around us affects and shape us since we were young. This means that the spaces that exist externally from us are affecting and shaping us up in a certain way. We often refer it to the background of the person what they have been through in their life.
The author of Persepolis” Marjane Satrapi was born during the Islamic revolution, where things were in an extreme condition compared to condition of our modern society. The environment was unpleasant. Violent acts, torturing, deaths, and forceful actions surrounded her. Later Marjane Satrapi’s establish her book “Persepolis”. The book is a narrative of her life from six years of age until fourteen years of age. She provides the childhood perspective from which the historical events of the novel are understood.
Philosopher Karl Marx (1818 to 1883) introduces his theory; Marxism’s theories include economic theory, sociological theory, philosophical method, and revolutionary change class-relations. Neo-Marxism is a new version of Marxism theories, but without the social classes determinism. The theory focuses more on inequality in society like power and status or “how material conditions and economic practices shape dominant ideology regarding taken- for- granted assumptions about who “ ought to be” and “ ought not to be” empowered. Discussing about power and money could lead to the idea of “hegemony”.
Hegemony refers to privileging of a dominant group’s ideology over that of other groups. As an illustration, the dominant groups or person in The United States is the government of ultimately Barrack Obama, as a president it is normal that he is in charge and control of The United States. The following paragraphs, will analyze chapter bicycle, the sheep, and the passport through neo-Marxist perspective and interpret how can relates to a rhetoric, ideologies or larger implication in our society. There are many ideologies are the dominant idea that occurred in the book Persepolis. Some of them might be a strange and seem non-sense for us.
The Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Tries to reform the country and tries to modernize Iran. He was inspired by his father’s ideology of creating machining that can run the country. It seems people are against him because the Islamic culture was more the dominant ideology for Iranian. It was mainly rejection of Shah’s policies, his policies that caused financial crisis, rebellion from peasants an well as being defeated at war. The main dominant ideology in Iran came from Jalal Al-el Ahmad’s idea “Gharbzadegi” it basically a perspective toward western culture that they are plague, toxic, poison, and should be eliminated.
During the long period revolution we can see two major different ideologies from different groups. The first ideology is the shah’s ideology of modernizing Iran, combining the western culture and the Iranian culture together, before 1979 Iranian were allow to dress and express themselves freely but after the revolution the citizen needs to wear veil. The second ideology is from the majority of people that are against the Shah’s policy. Ruhollah Khomeini led the main dominant ideology; he was an Iranian religious leader people pray respect to.
Ruhollah Khomeini, return to Iran after the revolution came to success the Shah was flees into exile. A extreme ideologies can be found in North Korea, North Korea is the most isolated country in he world, the city look the same and never change after the second world war. Kim Jung ill is the leader of the North Korea. North Korea is also known as Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. People in North Korea cannot leave their country. The school is a place to brainwash people. I when I watch a documentary about north Korean in Netflix, when Kim Ill sung died everyone cry so much it is very crazy to see something like this.
He is almost like their god, they all though that they have a really good life because of him. Everybody see him as providers, father of nation. We can see that North Korean is dominant by this ideology and it is a norm for them. They might not even know how the world outside their country looks, since all the information are being censored and filtered. In the chapter the bicycle in Persepolis, the Rex cinema in Abadan, Iran was burnt down, more than 400 victims were burnt to death. Even though the police was there, they were only there to make sure no one go in nd rescue the people that are trapped inside (p15). Even thought the news sates that it was the religious groups, everybody knew it was the Shah, and they didn’t fall for the illusion. The hegemony in this incident is that, the Shah uses his power as an Emperor of Iran to control the media such as newspaper, radio, etc. Although he tries to convey people to believe him the way he wanted, people knew that the it was plan and done by the Shah’s parties. In the context of Iranian history, this order was the biggest mistake he made, this provokes the more people.
And a lot were against his regime more and the revolution was taken to the next level until the Iranian finally success. Marji loves her uncle very much, she sees him as a hero because he was imprison for stand again the shah’s regime. After, Marji found out that her uncle Anoosh had been arrested for. Anoosh has a right to see one visitor and Marji was the one he wanted to see. He told Marji that she is a little girl he always wanted to have, and that one day the Proletariat will rule, and that visit was the last time Marji saw her uncle. The newspaper reports that he is a Russian spy and has been executed (70).
After that incident Marji banished god from her life. It was the beginning of the war, this type of hegemonies can be found in almost any urban cities or countries. In the chapter the passport, after Marjane and her father left the hospital to visit her father’s acquaintance Khosro. Khosro’s brother and Uncle Anoosh were in prison together during the Shah Dynasty time. His publishing company was shut down, Khosro have been printing fake passports and it is a big seller. After the deal of making fake passport, Maji and her father went back to the hospital and visit Uncle Taher he just had his third hearth attack.
Two days later Niloufar the eighteen years old communist that uncle Taher hid her in the basement got arrested and executed. Taher’s last wish is to see his son that went aboard for the last time but three weeks later after Niloufar was executed Uncle’s Taher passed away and was buried, meanwhile his real passport was ready for him, but he can’t see his son anymore. The hegemony in this incident is that the Shah uses his power as an Emperor to creates strong base army, he also have a secret police organization similar to CIA called “Savak” The Shah created a special police unit to help him control the situation from the anti-regime groups.
Anyone showing the slightest resistance to the regime was persecuted. This type of hegemony can be found in Thailand, a similar situation, not long ago people revolt against The Ex-priminister Taksin shinawat many times because his ultimate aim is to change Thailand regime system (no king and queen system). It always ends up as a new election, but he still uses his money to buy vote and win his way out. The yellow shirt (against Taksin) successfully flees into exile. The latest revolution is against his sister, Priminister Yingruk Shinawat. Where I live in Bangkok is near the priminister house.
I went for a drive; I saw a lot of police Van, police officer and Special unit team. They were gathering in a local school parking lot. They were there to protect the priminister house, I talked to them and they didn’t want to come but it was the order from priminister. In conclusion, Majane was born into an Iranian ideology that was against the Shah ideology. People were revolting against him because they the shah uses his power in a wrong way, and this type of tragedy can be seen over and over again. It constantly reoccurs in our society throughout history. We are human creature and I believe that our nature is to have control over things.
The Shah had control over army, military equipment, and media, which are very influential to most of us. He Technologies are developing so fast, communications are easier, but what good would it make, if there were always someone controlling us. Although North Korea has Internet, phone, computer, and e-mail, they were all censored and filtered. So what seems to be norm doesn’t mean it is a norm. No matter where we are, we will be influence by the dominant ideology of certain group culture, tradition, religion, and it requires a critical thinking and looking at things carefully to judge it.
Like the famous saying; the fish never knew there is water, until it got out of it. Works Cited Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis. New York, NY: Pantheon, 2003. Print. Sellnow, Deanna D. The Rhetorical Power of Popular Culture: Considering Mediated Texts. Los Angeles: SAGE, 2014. Print. “Iranian Revolution. ” The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts, 2 (2010): 576-578. “Iranian Revolution. ” The Providence Journal, (2010) “Iranian Revolution. ” The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, (2001) The paper was very informative.
I liked the introduction paragraph and he used good evidence. Make sure to double check because there are some grammar issues. Good information of Neo-Marxism and how it is used in the Iran society. The scenes he used were good scenes as evidence of his thesis. Make sure to have four sources and have them in the bibliography. The essay is well written and talks about the social issues. 1. citing credible resources is important, since my paper is a neo-Marxist perspective; ethos played a very significant role. 2. MLA format revision 3. Minor grammar, sentence, punctuation etc.