Sophocles’ Antigone – Greek Authors

Sophocles’ Antigone – Greek Authors

Themes of Sophocles
justice, pride, obstinacy, flawed humanity, and the struggle between destiny and free-will
What part of the social class was Sophocles ?
part of the ruling class
What did Sophocles write to warn his his fellow Greeks of?
divine retribution that would come to them as a result of their prejudices & injustices to the poor
How were the Olympian god’s not all powerful?
They were themselves subject to fait ; each other’s will. They were also subject to & bound to enforce a body of laws & traditions so ancient that their origins lay beyond even the oldest myths.
character who refuses to grant proper funeral rights to Polynices
Creon
portrays the suffering that comes as a consequence of a person’s own actions
Antigone
God of wine ; fertility that drama grew out of honoring
Dionysus
large outdoor amphitheater in Athens
Theater of Apollo at Delphi
How each actor portrayed several roles
wearing mask
increased actors visibility to the audience
wigs ; heeled boots
Dramatic Irony
when the audience has more information about the action than the characters
Three Unities in Greek Drama
Unity of Time, Unity of Place, Unity of Subject
Unity of time
all the action of the play took place within 24 hrs; in continuous time; dialogue ; Chorus provided background info
Unity of Place
all the action was limited to a single setting
Unity of Subject
one single main plot focused on the main character; no sub-plots
used to present exposition ; to provide commentary on the preceding action ; characters
Chorus
function of the chorus
– Set the tone
– Give background information
– Recall events of the past
– Interpret ; summarize events
– Ask questions or offer advice, if asked
– Act as a jury of elders or wise men who listened to evidence in the play ; reached a moralistic conclusion in the end.
first part of choral ode; move from left to right, or east to west, across stage
Strophe
follows strophe; returns steps from right to left or west to east
Antistrophe
follows strophe ; antistrophe in completing Chorus’ movement
Epode
character on stage will engage in dialogue with the chorus—also in song
Kommos
What Greek tragedy focuses on
Greek tragedy focuses on the reversal of fortune (peripeteia) & downfall of the tragic hero & events leading to the downfall.
being purged, or cleansed, of these unsettling emotions, & they are better able to understand life
Catharsis
difference between a tragedy & comedy
typically a tragedy starts off well but ends badly, whereas a comedy starts off badly but ends well
characteristics of a tragic hero
– usually elevated to a higher position in society
– he is not perfect
downfall is partially his own fault
– misfortune is not wholly deserved
– the fall is not pure loss
tragic flaw
hamartia
exaggerated self-pride or sold confidence which often results in fatal retribution
hubris
father of Antigone & Ismene
Oedipus
killed his father & married his own mother
Oedipus
Children of Oedipus
Antigone, Ismene, Polyneices, and Eteocles
Antigone’s cousin ; fiance
Haimon
new king of Thebes
Creon
setting
Antigone is in Thebes, the mythological past
Person vs Person conflict
-Antigone vs. Ismene
-Antigone vs. Creon
-Creon vs. Haimon
Person vs Self conflict
-Creon vs. himself
-Antigone vs. herself
Person vs. Society Conflict
-Antigone vs. society
-Creon vs. society
Human law vs. spiritual law
civil law of Thebes (from Creon) vs. moral law of the gods